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By Maud W. Gleason

The careers of 2 well known second-century rhetorical virtuosos provide Maud Gleason attention-grabbing insights into the methods old Romans built masculinity in the course of a time marked through nervousness over manly deportment. Declamation used to be a thrilling paintings shape for the Greeks and bilingual Romans of the second one Sophistic circulate, and its top practitioners might shuttle the empire appearing in entrance of enraptured audiences. The mastery of rhetoric marked the transition to manhood for all aristocratic electorate and remained an important to a man's social status. In treating rhetoric as a strategy of self-presentation in a face-to-face society, Gleason analyzes the deportment and writings of the 2 Sophists--Favorinus, a eunuch, and Polemo, a guy who met traditional gender expectations--to recommend the methods personality and gender have been perceived.

Physiognomical texts of the period exhibit how closely males scrutinized each other for minute symptoms of gender deviance in such good points as gait, gesture, facial features, and voice. Rhetoricians educated to enhance those qualities in a "masculine" type. studying the winning profession of Favorinus, whose high-pitched voice and florid presentation contrasted sharply with the traditionalist sort of Polemo, Gleason exhibits, even if, that excellent masculine habit was once now not a monolithic abstraction. In a hugely obtainable examine treating the semiotics of deportment and the scientific, cultural, and ethical concerns surrounding rhetorical task, she explores the probabilities of self-presentation within the look for popularity as a speaker and a man.

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2 probably this used to be an old case of Reifenstein's syndrome, within which an endocrine affliction ends up in incomplete virilization of a genetic male, frequently with undescended testicles. H. Mason, "Favorinus' sickness: Reifenstein's Syndrome in Antiquity? " Janus sixty six (1979), 113. three Aries (Arelate), initially a Greek payment, used to be refounded as a Roman legionary colony in forty six B. C. E. (Suetonius, Tiberius four. 1). four Soranus, Gyn. 2. 19. 15. four bankruptcy ONE constructed a mastery of Greek that enabled him to go away his local sector a ways at the back of. but the province ofNarbonensian Gaul had a protracted culture of city existence and used to be not at all a cultural backwater. Tacitus' father-inlaw, the exemplary Agricola, obtained his schooling in Marseilles, which supplied a contented mix of Greek refinement and provincial simplicity. s The orator Votienus Montanus got here from Narbo; he was once sufficiently amazing to be attempted for treason in Rome. 6 Gaul used to be additionally the birthplace of Marcus Aper, whose forensic expertise earned him a Roman praetorship and a number one position in Tacitus' discussion on oratory. 7 In Narbonensis the ambience one of the cultivated was once bilingual: Agroitas, a provincial local, declaimed in Greek yet looked as if it would Seneca to have realized extra from the Romans; the belief is that he had entry to either Greek- and Latin-speaking lecturers. eight Lyons hosted a rhetorical festival the place prizes have been provided for either Greek and Latin eloquence via imperial decree. nine definitely it was once no longer essential to visit Rome, Athens, or Ephesus to benefit the strikes of rhetorical one-upmanship. The recognized orator Moschus, in exile from Pergamum, 10 may locate his kind parodied via a neighborhood rhetorician one morning in Marseilles; he in flip may well impugn the masculinity of a Roman rival via creating a bilingualjoke of his identify. eleven Greek performers toured in Gaul: Lucian made loads of cash there in his days as a touring sophist, and considered one of Piu tar ch's neighbors went to Gaul on a lecture tour-never to come, the sufferer of a tragicomic coincidence and his personal expert delight. 12 even supposing the elite ofNarbonensis evidently supported Greek rhetoric as a spectator game, it had no forensic software within the west, and people who pondered a political profession often placed their time into Latin. therefore Favorinus' determination to pay attention to Greek was once strange. except the preliminary plan used to be that he should still himself open an area tuition, we may well think that as a really younger guy he had made one other selection: to not spend his lifestyles as landowner and liturgist within the provider of his Tacitus, Agricola four. Tacitus, Annals four. forty two. Montanus, like Favorinus, didn't it appears preserve strong relatives together with his local urban (Seneca Contr. 7. five. 12). 7 Aper could have been from a small city in Narbonensis or from backwoods Gaul (Tres Galliae): R. Syme, Tacitus (New York: 1980), appendix ninety one; on oratory in Gaul, see additionally pp. 459, 623n. five, 799-800. eight Seneca Contr. 2. 6. 12. nine Suetonius Gaius Caligula 20; Juvenal 1. forty four. 10 Convicted of poisoning regardless of the forensic efforts of Asinius Pollio, Moschus organize store as a rhetorical instructor in Marseilles and gratefully bequeathed his wealth to his followed urban (Tacitus Annals four.

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