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Extra resources for Gramsci's Political Thought (Historical Materialism Book)
So, it's not by accident that the hot makes an attempt to use the concept that of the ‘Prussian course’ to Brazil have typically been complemented via Gramsci’s proposal of ‘passive revolution’. As this idea, like several different Gramscian recommendations, seriously stresses the superstructural second – and the political second certainly, hence overcoming the economistic traits that have been found in the Marxism of the 3rd foreign – it proved immensely beneficial for contributing to research of the 18. For examinations of elements of Brazilian heritage that articulate the concept that of the ‘Prussian direction’ and the Gramscian type of ‘passive revolution’, see, between others, Vianna 1997 and Coutinho 2005. 176 • Appendix 3 Brazilian route to capitalism, a direction within which the Brazilian country often performed the top position. these days, the literature on Gramsci unanimously recognizes that the suggestion of ‘passive revolution’ or ‘revolution-restoration’ has a distinct position within the reflections inside the Notebooks. This inspiration is a key tool utilized by Gramsci not just to appreciate the formation of the bourgeois kingdom in Italy (the occasions of the Risorgimento, which ended in Italian nationwide unity), but in addition to stipulate the basic gains of the transition of Italian capitalism to its monopolist level, concerning Fascism as a kind of ‘passive revolution’. the concept that is additionally utilized by Gramsci as a extra common interpretative criterion: one want merely imagine, for example, of his idea to learn the Americanist and Fordist event utilizing this idea. 19 it is going to now not be tricky to observe the presence of the most positive aspects of Gramsci’s ‘passive revolution’ mostly adjustments ‘from above’ that occurred in Brazil. because the dominant periods reacted to real or capability well known events, they dedicated themselves to ‘restorations’ that eventually ended in major alterations in class-composition and therefore cleared the path for brand spanking new, actual modifications. i'll talk about just one instance, which i believe is indicative: the so-called ‘Revolution of 1930’ that resulted in the Vargas dictatorship in 1937, the climax of the afflicted interval that started in 1922, the 12 months of the basis of the PCB and of the 1st rebellion of the younger officials, the Tenentes. at the moment, the staff’ circulate fought for social and political rights, while the city middle-classes demanded higher political participation within the apparatuses of energy. those pressures ‘from below’, no matter if disorganised, brought on a zone of the ruling agrarian oligarchy – the stratum so much attached with creation for the inner marketplace – to take the lead within the Revolution of 1930. one in every of its leaders expressed the which means of the Revolution while he stated: ‘We needs to make the revolution sooner than the folks do it’. What we've got this is the Brazilian model of the well-known sentence by way of a personality from Lampedusa’s Il Gattopardo: ‘We needs to switch every little thing in order that every little thing remains the same’. despite its conservative nature, the triumph of the Revolution of 1930 resulted in the formation of a brand new power-bloc, within which the oligarchic stratum attached with export-agriculture used to be positioned in a subaltern place, while politico-military alliance with the reasonable wing of the middleclasses (represented by means of the lieutenants) was once tried.