By Hans-Erhard Lessing
The bicycle ranks as the most enduring, most generally used cars on the earth, with greater than a thousand million produced in the course of virtually 2 hundred years of biking historical past. This e-book deals an authoritative and finished account of the bicycle's technical and historic evolution, from the earliest velocipedes (invented to fill the necessity for horseless delivery in the course of a scarcity of oats) to fashionable racing motorcycles, mountain motorcycles, and recumbents. It lines the bicycle's improvement by way of fabrics, ergonomics, and automobile physics, as conducted through inventors, marketers, and manufacturers.
Written through best bicycle historians and generously illustrated with ancient drawings, designs, and images, Bicycle Design describes the most important levels within the evolution of the bicycle, starting with the counterintuitive suggestion of balancing on wheels in line, during the improvement of tension-spoked wheels, oblique drives (employing levers, pulleys, chains, and chainwheels), and pneumatic tires. The authors learn the extra improvement of the bicycle for such particular reasons as racing, portability, and all-terrain use; they usually describe the evolution of bicycle elements together with seats, transmission, brakes, lighting (at first candle-based), and vendors (racks, panniers, saddlebags, baby seats, and sidecars). they think about not just commercially winning designs but in addition advertisement disasters that pointed easy methods to destiny technological advancements. they usually debunk a few myths approximately bicycles -- for instance, the fallacious yet often-cited concept that Leonardo sketched a chain-drive motorbike in his notebooks. regardless of the bicycle's lengthy historical past and mass allure, its technological background has been ignored. This quantity, with its attractive and wide-ranging insurance, fills that hole. it is going to be the place to begin for all destiny histories of the bicycle.
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Extra info for Bicycle Design: An Illustrated History (MIT Press)
This stored weight, and the hole areas within the entrance fork served as oil reservoirs for non-stop lubrication of front axle. construction versions provided lower than the alternate identify American Bicycle had a brake block fixed on the finish of the seat’s spring blade; the rider may perhaps actuate it via relocating his weight backward. Pickering patented a triangular pedal 3 months previous to the Olivier brothers. a minimum of 9 Pickering velocipedes nonetheless exist (Pickering 2009). Joseph Irving, assignor to the carriage builder A. T. Demarest & corporation of recent York, supplied a forty five° steerage column that made it viable to mount a entrance wheel with a diameter as huge as 50 inches (US patent 89,149 of 1869). A rider on a 45-inch Demarest completed a pace of 33 miles in line with hour (Sanderson 2009). front brake and the leg relaxation moved with the deflected entrance wheel. The seat was once low adequate to permit the rider’s toes succeed in the floor. This enhanced American Velocipede confirmed the main brilliant option to keep away from the mounting and dealing with difficulties of the second-generation French velocipedes. William Racey got a patent for an unique option to ease mounting, and make using extra social, by means of bolting velocipedes jointly in parallel (US patent 90,302 of 1869). this concept reappeared every now and then, however the excellent of a “bachelor desktop” started to succeed. using a freewheel in the front-wheel hub, patented via William van Anden (US patent 88,238 of 1869), allowed the rider to mount a velocipede via status with one foot on F ront D rive sixty nine determine 2. 15 American and British patent drawings for velocipedes. a pedal. (See determine 7. 2. ) This layout was once used on a computing device made by means of Dexter, one instance of that is held through the Smithsonian establishment. In 1869 there have been acknowledged to be 16,000 velocipedes in big apple (Galaxy journal, April 1869). but, simply as in 1820, urban ordinances of 1869 forbade velocipeding at the sidewalks of recent York and in other places at the East Coast (Dunham 1956, 111). a few artisans equipped cranked velocipedes in Canada, yet no producer produced them in numbers (Norcliffe 2001). Velocipede mania resulted in North the USA even as in France: round 1870. besides the fact that, in 1879 John Shire of Detroit used to be granted a patent on a wood computing device that used to be comparable ergonomically to the Demarest laptop (US patent 216,231 of 1879). not less than of those machines are extant. Velocipedes in England on the shut of 1868, the cranked velocipede crossed the Channel to England. possibly the 1st the British public heard of it was once a record within the instances of February 19, 1869 of a trip by way of 70 C hapter 2 3 younger males from London to Brighton—a tale hence syndicated in three hundred neighborhood papers. one of many 3, Rowley Turner, was once a nephew of Josiah Turner, supervisor of the Coventry stitching computing device corporation Ltd. and the Paris agent for that company’s stitching machines. His proposals diverted the corporate into velocipede manufacture, successfully beginning Coventry’s lengthy involvement with bicycles. Rowley Turner, who had discovered to journey at Pascaud’s gym in Paris, deliberate to exploit Coventry’s idle engineering means to provide velocipedes for his new organisation, Turner & Cie.